A computer program to improve scientific writing

The statement ‘HIV causes AIDS’ is an oft-quoted example of an unempirical overstatement.

If a person is already immune-deficient, HIV aggravates his immunodeficiency.

If a person is immunocompetent, HIV initiates and promotes immunodeficiency.

I have written a program in Python that highlights unempirical words for replacement or removal.

Using it will improve scientific writing and make it more concise. I’m going to use it to rewrite my own blog posts to reduce emotional overstatements that I myself have been making.

I dare say many people need this tool to improve the accuracy of their writing, maybe even nearly everyone needs this; not everyone – ‘everyone’ is an unempirical word.

Of all the unempirical words and notions, causation and other causal terms are the most noxious. They are overused, overstated, and verbose.

 

RNY gastric bypass: in those cured of diabetes, is this evidence for high level duodenal gluconeogenesis?

In the 80% or so of those who are cured of diabetes shortly after RNY gastric bypass and long before significant weight loss:

Could at least part of the explanation be that in these patients, a high level of constitutive gluconeogenesis was occurring in their duodena or a key regulatory/stimulatory event in gluconeogenesis, or both?

At any rate, causation is out of the question. Causation is an over-used, inane, insane function of one variable.

Enough gluconeogenesis to account for most of the excess glucose found in their bloodstream after an overnight fast?

At any rate, more gluconeogenesis than is commonly recognized. Doctors believe that in general the liver does most of the gluconeogenesis, followed by the kidneys, followed by the intestines. Perhaps in most healthy individuals and when gluconeogenesis is not constitutive.

But in everyone else? I doubt it.

Any deficiency has long tentacles

Consider B3 deficiency – the diversion of more and more tryptophan to make more B3 is guaranteed or death will result. This diversion leaves less tryptophan for picolinic acid synthesis (long term result may be poorer absorption of dietary zinc). This diversion of tryptophan leaves less tryptophan for serotonin and melatonin synthesis.

B3 deficiency tends toward deficiencies in tryptophan, serotonin, melatonin, and zinc and each of these deficiencies has long tentacles of its own. More and more problems downstream and more and more deficiencies.

Melatonin deficiency –> poorer sleep and all of its consequences, from eating more and less exercise, poorer moods, and tendency toward depression.

With serotonin deficiency – also with a tendency toward depression, the person unconsciously does a lot of harmful things that are rewarded and reinforced whenever moods improve or serotonin levels rise and moods accordingly. Example – overconsumption of sugary treats.

Same for zinc deficiency – the decrease in taste acuity has a person over-salting and over-sugaring his foods. Makes diabetes more likely if he is not diabetic and diabetes worse if he already is diabetic. If he is a salt-sensitive person, his edema and blood pressure will increase. If he is already on thiazide diuretics for hypertension, his zinc deficiency should increase and his taste acuity decrease accordingly, in a vicious cycle.

Will taking B3 immediately reverse these things? Of course not – it takes a long time to correct these problems, because each of these deficiencies has tentacles of its own. A long, long time, and people do not have the patience. There is only one genuine solution and it is to eat right and supplement appropriately. Eating right takes a lot of effort, and people, even people with means, do not make sufficient effort.

Now consider this: as bad as B3 deficiency is or could become, imagine also a general protein deficiency. That means almost certainly a tryptophan deficiency. But imagine a specific tryptophan deficiency. How much worse would niacin, serotonin, melatonin, and zinc deficiencies become? Much worse. Imagine a local deficiency if you cannot imagine a systemic deficiency. Imagine how bad things can get in a particular locale where multiple deficiencies coexist.

Integer valued right triangles and integer, half-integer valued right triangles

Something I figured out as an eight year old child but never published. I’m sure it has been done before, but it is kind of neat.

Integer, half-integer right triangles
A^2 = B+C, where C=B+1, and A is an even integer
Check: is C^2 – B^2 – A^2 = 0 ?
A B C=B+1 C*C B*B A*A Check:
4 7.5 8.5 72.25 56.25 16 0
6 17.5 18.5 342.25 306.25 36 0
8 31.5 32.5 1056.25 992.25 64 0
10 49.5 50.5 2550.25 2450.25 100 0
12 71.5 72.5 5256.25 5112.25 144 0
14 97.5 98.5 9702.25 9506.25 196 0
16 127.5 128.5 16512.25 16256.25 256 0
18 161.5 162.5 26406.25 26082.25 324 0
20 199.5 200.5 40200.25 39800.25 400 0
22 241.5 242.5 58806.25 58322.25 484 0
24 287.5 288.5 83232.25 82656.25 576 0
26 337.5 338.5 114582.3 113906.3 676 0
28 391.5 392.5 154056.3 153272.3 784 0
30 449.5 450.5 202950.3 202050.3 900 0
32 511.5 512.5 262656.3 261632.3 1024 0
34 577.5 578.5 334662.3 333506.3 1156 0
36 647.5 648.5 420552.3 419256.3 1296 0
38 721.5 722.5 522006.3 520562.3 1444 0
40 799.5 800.5 640800.3 639200.3 1600 0
42 881.5 882.5 778806.3 777042.3 1764 0
44 967.5 968.5 937992.3 936056.3 1936 0
46 1057.5 1058.5 1120422 1118306 2116 0
48 1151.5 1152.5 1328256 1325952 2304 0
50 1249.5 1250.5 1563750 1561250 2500 0
52 1351.5 1352.5 1829256 1826552 2704 0
54 1457.5 1458.5 2127222 2124306 2916 0
56 1567.5 1568.5 2460192 2457056 3136 0
58 1681.5 1682.5 2830806 2827442 3364 0
60 1799.5 1800.5 3241800 3238200 3600 0
62 1921.5 1922.5 3696006 3692162 3844 0
64 2047.5 2048.5 4196352 4192256 4096 0  ……….

 

Integer valued right triangles
A^2 = B+C, where C=B+1, where A is an odd integer
Check: is C^2 – B^2 – A^2 = 0 ?
A B C=B+1 C*C B*B A*A Check:
3 4 5 25 16 9 0
5 12 13 169 144 25 0
7 24 25 625 576 49 0
9 40 41 1681 1600 81 0
11 60 61 3721 3600 121 0
13 84 85 7225 7056 169 0
15 112 113 12769 12544 225 0
17 144 145 21025 20736 289 0
19 180 181 32761 32400 361 0
21 220 221 48841 48400 441 0
23 264 265 70225 69696 529 0
25 312 313 97969 97344 625 0
27 364 365 133225 132496 729 0
29 420 421 177241 176400 841 0
31 480 481 231361 230400 961 0
33 544 545 297025 295936 1089 0
35 612 613 375769 374544 1225 0
37 684 685 469225 467856 1369 0
39 760 761 579121 577600 1521 0
41 840 841 707281 705600 1681 0
43 924 925 855625 853776 1849 0
45 1012 1013 1026169 1024144 2025 0
47 1104 1105 1221025 1218816 2209 0
49 1200 1201 1442401 1440000 2401 0
51 1300 1301 1692601 1690000 2601 0
53 1404 1405 1974025 1971216 2809 0
55 1512 1513 2289169 2286144 3025 0
57 1624 1625 2640625 2637376 3249 0
59 1740 1741 3031081 3027600 3481 0
61 1860 1861 3463321 3459600 3721 0
63 1984 1985 3940225 3936256 3969 0 …………….

Are all consequences of global warming necessarily bad?

Ignoring the question of whether this whole crisis is made up:

Those with a clear political agenda aver it.

‘Necessarily’ and ‘all’ are unempirical words, so I’m a naysayer – unlikely that all consequences are necessarily bad. Nature would not be workable if it were so simple, so black and white, as simple-minded people with narrow political agendas will themselves to be.

Among other good things: world population demands may just require areas normally covered by snow for much of the year to become good summer farmland.

In hypothesizing that Simpson’s Paradox is the rule

I am really saying –

Rule 1: as a rule, there is/are one or more hidden variables in scientific treatments. People tend to oversimplify, initially treating the phenomenon as a function of too few variables, often just one, the cause.

Rule 2: as a rule, these hidden variables are confounding – they make Simpson’s Paradox the rule. The correlations observed would dissolve or become considerably less meaningful, as soon as the hidden variable(s) is/are uncovered and properly understood.