When I wrote that there are thousands of nutrients in thousands of locations within the body, any one of which may be deficient or in excess, I meant to say thousands of “substances,” “nutrients” being too narrow.
I think now of proteins in all of their chemically modified forms, and a protein may have a normal concentration but may be underactive or too active because of improper chemical modification. Proteins are examples of critical substances that are not considered “nutrients” that can be deficient or excessive and create serious problems – think of the adverse consequences in the inner mitochondrial membrane of any cell in which the total load of OXPHOS proteins is seriously deficient. All kinds of problems may result from this, yet all of the “nutrients” that work with those proteins may be present with sufficient – though short of optimal – biological activities. This protein deficiency may be secondary to a mitochondrial or a cytoplasmic deficiency in protein synthesis and that may be traceable to nutrient deficiencies or to the excess of some harmful substances or both.