The beauty of using biological activity measurements

Enzymes usually have cofactors. What if cofactors have cofactors that affect the activity of the cofactor and thus the activity of the enzyme?

For example, a number of enzymes use thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) as a cofactor and TPP uses magnesium. In this case both cofactors are essential. I am wondering if most essential nutrients bound to enzymes have one or more non-essential nutrients as cofactors bound to them, out to several coordination spheres, to at least where the milieu provides the last coordination spheres.

In which case, nothing beats a biological activity measurement because any cofactors of the cofactors are already integrated into the output. One may not know why a measurement is low, but at least the measurement is more valid than a mere measurement of concentration.

Most medical measurements are simple measures of concentration and they will totally miss this effect.

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