There are 6 recognized hallmarks of cancer (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000). I suggest that there are at least 2 more:
- Aerobic glycolysis (Warburg) and substrate level phosphorylation
- Evasion of the immune system
- Glutamine addiction?
So when anyone declares that something causes cancer he is saying that all by itself the cause changes the normal cell’s phenotype into a cancer cell’s phenotype in 8 or 9 different ways. A nonsensical statement if I ever heard one. There is no cause of cancer.
Of the 8 or 9 hallmarks of cancer, the first two above suggest the best ways to avoid cancer.
- Nourish, challenge/fast, and protect mitochondria – do not let cells rely on aerobic glycolysis and lactic acid production to survive. The best ways of doing this are not clear, but I would suggest proper omnivorous nutrition, regular exercise (walking at a pace at which one can talk- stimulates mitochondrial respiration and fat burning in mitochondria), periodic fasting (in addition to forcing a higher level of mitochondrial respiration, the autophagy to digest and recycle defective mitochondria would be invaluable), mitochondrial-specific supplements, and periodic severe glucose restriction (less than about 20 grams of carbohydrate a day as in Atkins).
- Nourish and protect the immune system – do not let it become somnolent or succoring – the two states that cancer cells can thrive under. The best ways of doing this are debatable, but proper omnivorous nutrition, regular exercise at a comfortable, fat-burning pace, periodic fasting, and periodic severe glucose restriction, and periodic induction of fever (per William Coley) may be the best defense against both immuno-somnolence and the immuno-succoring of tumors.