The hallmarks of cancer

There are 6 recognized hallmarks of cancer (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000). I suggest that there are at least 2 more:

  1. Aerobic glycolysis (Warburg) and substrate level phosphorylation
  2. Evasion of the immune system
  3. Glutamine addiction?

So when anyone declares that something causes cancer he is saying that all by itself the cause changes the normal cell’s phenotype into a cancer cell’s phenotype in 8 or 9 different ways. A nonsensical statement if I ever heard one. There is no cause of cancer.

Of the 8 or 9 hallmarks of cancer, the first two above suggest the best ways to avoid cancer.

  1. Nourish, challenge/fast, and protect mitochondria – do not let cells rely on aerobic glycolysis and lactic acid production to survive. The best ways of doing this are not clear, but I would suggest proper omnivorous nutrition, regular exercise (walking at a pace at which one can talk- stimulates mitochondrial respiration and fat burning in mitochondria), periodic fasting (in addition to forcing a higher level of mitochondrial respiration, the autophagy to digest and recycle defective mitochondria would be invaluable), mitochondrial-specific supplements, and periodic severe glucose restriction (less than about 20 grams of carbohydrate a day as in Atkins).
  2. Nourish and protect the immune system – do not let it become somnolent or succoring – the two states that cancer cells can thrive under. The best ways of doing this are debatable, but proper omnivorous nutrition, regular exercise at a comfortable, fat-burning pace, periodic fasting, and periodic severe glucose restriction, and periodic induction of fever (per William Coley) may be the best defense against both immuno-somnolence and the immuno-succoring of tumors.

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