Differences in diet and food habits between patients with gallstones and controls.
- 1Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
To compare the food, energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake of patients with gallstones to those of a control group of similar demographic characteristics.
54 gallstone patients and 46 control subjects.
Two 24-hour dietary recalls and a “food frequency intake” questionnaire were obtained from patients and controls. In both groups, the presence/absence of gallstones was confirmed by ultrasonography. Participants answered a questionnaire on their physical activity patterns.
Gallstone patients consumed less food per day (g/day) and less fish and fruits than did control subjects. They also showed greater intakes of cereals, oils, sugars and meats than did control subjects and ate fewer meals per day, tending to omit evening snacks and more substantial evening meals. Further, patients spent less time walking and slept more than did control subjects. They also experienced fluctuations in body weight with greater frequency. Patients consumed more total calories (energy) and fats (especially monounsaturated fatty acids and saturated fatty acids), and less fiber, folate and magnesium than did control subjects. Women with gallstones were shown to have significantly higher intakes of total fats, monounsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and significantly lower intakes of fiber, folate, magnesium, calcium and vitamin C than control women. For all vitamins and minerals studied, patients showed a greater percentage of intakes below those recommended.
Dietary intervention might provide a method of avoiding the recurrence of gallstones as well as a method of prevention control subjects.